Modern Europe, in particular the totalitarian and authoritarian movements and regimes of the inter-war period. The modern historical experience of Italy, Spain, Portugal and France.
“Was Italian Intervention in the Spanish Civil War Decisive?” “Should the Western Democracies have intervened to save the Spanish Republic?” in History in Dispute: The Spanish Civil War, Daniel Kowalsky, Kenneth Estes eds., (London: Saint James Press, 2005).
"I Fasci Italiani all' Estero" in I Fasci all' Estero, Emilio Franzina, Mario Sanfilippo eds., (Bari: Laterza, 2003).
"Fascism for Export? The Rise and Eclipse of the Fasci Italiani all' Estero," Journal of Contemporary History, 35 (April 2000): 151-183.
"Appunti sulla storiografia sulla destra spagnola nella Seconda Repubblica (Notes on the Spanish Right during the Second Republic)," Storia Contemporanea 24 (February 1993): 130-146.
"Alcuni aspetti della politica estera dei socialisti alla fine dell' ottocento (The Socialist Party and Italian Foreign Policy at the End of the Nineteenth Century)," Rassegna Storica del Risorgimento 74 (April-June 1987): 188-228.